A great deal of research makes it clear that identity diversity matters just as much as cognitive diversity in creating effective teams.
In 1971, a Yale psychologist borrowed a chilling concept from the novel "1984" to label a new phenomenon of human behavior.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion, a political move widely viewed as a textbook case of failed decision-making, has helped psychologists study major organizations.
What causes groupthink? One major factor is the tendency people have in meetings to rush toward consensus, just so the meeting can end earlier.
Groupthink is what happens when team members stop thinking independently, don't speak up, and race toward consensus. But leaders can still avoid it.
Whether someone speaks up at work or keeps quiet often comes down to their sense of social threat or reward, which leaders play a crucial role in creating.
Organizations can use psychological safety to solve any number of problems, but it won’t solve them on its own. Instead, leaders need to get specific.
Leaders who practice optimal inclusion — that is, deploying the right people for the right jobs — can create more efficient, effective teams.
If leaders can make their organization a psychologically safe place to speak up, they can tap into a wellspring of new ideas from otherwise quiet folks.